Advanced Power Management for In-Service Combatants
Navy SBIR 2010.1 - Topic N101-055
NAVSEA - Mr. Dean Putnam -
Opens: December 10, 2009 - Closes: January 13, 2010

N101-055 TITLE: Advanced Power Management for In-Service Combatants

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Ground/Sea Vehicles

ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PMS 400F, Fleet Support Office

OBJECTIVE: Develop an advanced power management system including the associated algorithms, control programming, and human interfaces that will provide the capability to monitor and adjust energy generation sources, energy storage, and dynamic loads for enhanced shipboard distribution performance.

DESCRIPTION: PMS 400F is leading efforts with NSWCCD (Philadelphia, PA) to further reduce the Navy’s reliance on fossil fuels while increasing energy efficiency of the DDG 51 Class. Hybrid Electric Drive (HED) will be used to improve DDG 51 Class ship fuel efficiency during normal cruising and enables increased mission load power for future warfighting capabilities. In Electric Propulsion System (EPS) mode, the system will be designed to drive both shafts utilizing electric rotating machines attached to the Main Reduction Gears (MRGs) at ships speeds up to approximately 13 knots without the use of the LM2500 Gas Turbine Main engines (GTMs). In Propulsion Derived Ship’s Service (PDSS) or generation mode, the system will use the attached motors as generators, powered by the GTMs via the MRGs, connected to the electrical distribution system. Operating the HED in PDSS mode provides the redundancy required to secure one of the typically two on-line 501K Ship Service Gas Turbine Generator (SSGTG), providing additional fuel efficiency.

As the HED system with future potential in energy storage is developed and implemented, the propulsion load will become hybrid in that the propulsion power can be provided by either mechanical or electrical means through the motor attached to the MRG. The electrical distribution will also gain a variable source of energy on the bus. As this capability is integrated into the ship, the ability to monitor and control power from various will need to be capable of automatic and manual operation and monitoring. The current state-of-the-art in configuration and control methodology segregates the operation of the propulsion and ship’s service loads. With the current state-of-the-art technology solutions, it is not possible to use the ship service generators to supply propulsion power or tap into the propulsion power to provide electrical power. The ability to integrate and "share" power sources would allow for more efficient power generation, utilization and management of the available power sources onboard naval ships.

This topic seeks to explore innovative methods, processes and the associated technologies necessary to develop an advanced power management system. This includes the associated algorithms, control programming and human interfaces that will provide the capability to monitor and adjust energy generation sources, energy storage and dynamic loads for enhanced shipboard distribution performance. A key technical challenge is going to be the ability to monitor and control multiple types and sources of power with different peak-powers and operating profiles. For example, energy storage devices are going to try to keep the voltage at a pre-determined level to prevent brown-outs. Energy generation is going to try to provide long-term load adjustments. If the energy storage devices absorbed all of the short term transients, your energy generation system would likely not know of a power fluctuation and might potentially not respond until energy storage reserves run dry. The proposed concepts should be able to interface and integrate into the ship’s existing control and monitoring framework, Integrated Condition Assessment System (ICAS) as well as the Full Authority Digital Controller (FADC) which is responsible for controlling the load sharing between generators. Proposed concepts should be able to handle variable source power, ensure capability of operation by single crew member, assure that each load is being used optimally, and easily display the current state of the plant operation.

This system could be deployed to the existing fleet to ensure the ship’s propulsion/distribution are utilized effectively and enable the efficient operation of variable sources of power. In the future, upgrades of this system may be required to work with a variety of stored energy sources such as fuel cells, flywheels, and other renewable energy resources. For this reason, the approach proposed should employ the use of open architecture principles as practicable.

PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of the monitoring interface and control system that will provide the interfaced capability to monitor and adjust varying dynamic sources and loads. Where applicable, develop computer models that will demonstrate the feasibility, performance, and modes of operation of the proposed concept. Establish validation goals and metrics to analyze the feasibility of the proposed solution and provide a Phase II development approach and schedule that contains discrete milestones for product development.

PHASE II: Finalize the design concept from Phase I and fabricate a prototype in order to evaluate the developed algorithms and strategies. Validate prototype capabilities in laboratory testing and provide results. Demonstrate proposed installation, maintenance, and performance of the monitoring interface and control system. Develop testing procedures to measure the effectiveness of the system and develop a plan for an installation and testing onboard ship. As appropriate, provide a detailed plan for software certification and validation.

PHASE III: Working with the Navy, install and test on a DDG-51 Class destroyer. Provide detail drawings and specifications. Technology will have potential to transition to all US Navy platforms that utilize advanced generation and energy distribution systems for fuel efficiency and high power loads.

PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: As industrial power generation operations will rely relying more on multiple dynamic alternative energy sources, such as solar, hydro, and wind power, along with energy storage technologies, their ability to balance and monitor complex grid systems, will grow past their ability to build a power management system that will be cost effective for their operation. In order to maximize the return of investment in alternative energy sources, industry will need the capability for controlling assets based on efficiency and life cycle costs.

1. Borbely, A. and Kreider, J.F. "Distributed Generation: The Power Paradigm for the New Millennium", CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2001.

2. Ackermann, T. Knyazkin, V., "Interaction Between Distributed Generation and the Distribution Network: Operation Aspects". Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exhibition. 2002.

3. "Shipboard Electric Power Distribution: AC Versus DC Is Not the Issue, Rather, How Much of Each Is the Issue"; LCDR John V. Amy Jr. PhD, Mr. David H. Clayton and Mr. Rolf O. Kotacka; All Electric Ship 98 Conference.2nd ed., vol. 3, J. Peters, Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964, pp. 15-64.

4. Large Wind Integration Challenges and Solutions for Operations and System Reliability, Presented to IEMDC 2009 Conference by Bart McManus of Bonneville Power Administration

5. ICAS Web site: (accessible without username/password)

KEYWORDS: Energy Efficiency; Power Management; Distributed Generation; Energy Generation; Energy Storage;

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