TITLE: Optical Emulator of Complex Electromagnetic Maneuverability (EM) Systems with Nanophotonics
Battlespace, Electronics, Sensors
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PMS 435,
Periscope and Mast Venerability to operate Submarine at Periscope depth at
OBJECTIVE: Develop an Optical
Emulator of complex Electromagnetic Maneuverability (EM) systems with
(EM) properties such as EM cross section (EMCS) or antenna gain are often
measured in anechoic chambers. However, for very large structures such as
submarine or other highly complex platforms, this could be expensive or
impractical due to the sheer size of the structure. Computer simulation is a
very helpful tool, but the processing time increases exponentially with the
scale of the model about the wavelength, making the solution intractable for
large systems. Also, these complex codes can easily diverge or present
artifacts that should be identified by other means. This is new innovative
technology of using Nanostructure and optics to determine periscope
venerability. Currently, this is not commercially available.
Considering Maxwell's equations are invariant under dilatation transformation,
it is possible to make the measurement on reduced size models and using
proportionally higher frequencies. By conserving the scale factor between model
and wavelength, the solution is identical. In the past, scale models of the
structure of interest have been used with a reduced factor of the interested
structure of a few tens in scale and kept into the radio frequency (RF) domain.
Today, with the emergence of nanophotonics and the access to sub-micron 3D
printing machines, it is possible to measure all the EM properties of complex
RF systems in the near infrared (NIR) (1 micron) by reducing the size by a
factor 105. At that scale, an entire Virginia-class submarine (~150 meters) can
be recreated to a length of 1.5 cm and can easily fit in a tabletop
measurement setup. The advantages of this approach are faster computation
(1/365) and much cheaper than the full-scale measurement (1/250). Using such a
large-scale factor also means that it is possible to reproduce large radar
clutter such as sea clutter to measure the Radar Cross Section (RCS)
measurement of the submarine near marine wave boundary.
The NIR wavelength range provides critical advantages over other spectral
regions. First, there are many transparent dielectric materials available in
the NIR, such as organic polymers, that can be used and engineered to reproduce
the complex permittivity of the material observed at RF. Second, there are many
optical sources such as femtosecond pulsed fiber laser that can be used for
ranging, or supercontinuum laser that can be used for spectral analysis. Third,
by using 2D detector, it is possible to determine the specific part of the
structure: periscope, communication antenna, stabilizer fin, conning tower,
hull, or even wake pattern that is responsible for the RCS signal. This imaging
technique gives information similar to Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR),
which is a radar technique using Radar imaging to generate a two-dimensional
high-resolution image of a target. It is analogous to conventional SAR, except
that ISAR technology utilizes the movement of the target rather than the
emitter to create the synthetic aperture and without the back projection
computation (and artifact).
The proposer will demonstrate, at its company location, a femtosecond pulsed
laser to perform holographic time-of-flight measurements, which allows
retrieving the 3D information of the prototyped Naval platform (10’s of mm in
size) model. This type of holographic measurement is similar to the ranging
mode of operation of RADAR. In addition, the proposer will demonstrate the
capability of immediately identifying the location and the nature of the
strongest scatters and glints from the proposed Navy structure of interest.
This ability allows for an intuitive interaction with the structure model to
eliminate these sources of unwanted scattering and minimize the RCS from
visible to RF range. The proposer should identify the RF permittivity of
conductors and dielectrics like concrete and vegetation that will be reproduced
as nanoparticles. The proposer should develop plasmonic nano-antennas that
behave as their RF counterpart using current technology.
Future state of the 3D printing technique will be able to create any structure
in nano scale, in only a few hours, compared to current manufacturing
technology to create a scale model submarine or other structure, which
currently takes more than couple of months. Since the RCS measurement by itself
can take only a few minutes, this technique offers an extremely fast turnaround
between Computer Added Design (CAD) modification and measuring the impact of
the change on the RCS signature. This fast turn-around provides a critical
advantage on the ability to create a RADAR in stealth structure. The proposer
shall demonstrate such antennas by benchtop emulator and can include active
emitters, so that antenna placement as well as interferences should evaluate at
their far field emission and be measured.
The long-term Navy vision is an electromagnetic “wind tunnel” system where,
from a CAD model of the structure of interest, a scale model can be
manufactured by 3D printing. By integrating different materials, conductor and
dielectrics, the model will accurately reproduce the RF properties of the
original structure. Active antennas will then be added to specific locations to
test for obstruction and interferences. The electromagnetic signature will be
obtained with 2D sensors all around the model for a fast and high-resolution
measurement. Turnaround time from CAD file to measurement has been proven to be
less than a day.
PHASE I: Provide a concept
for an Optical Emulator of complex EM systems with nanophotonics to solve the
Navy’s problem, and demonstrate the feasibility of that concept based on
model-based engineering (MBE), simulation, and modeling. Conduct a feasibility
study that includes manufacturing, source, detector, and material scaling.
Develop a Phase II plan. The Phase I Option, if exercised, will include the
initial design specifications and capabilities description to build a prototype
solution in Phase II.
PHASE II: Build and
demonstrate a prototype design of the system from the proof of concept of EMCS
technology. Provide a compact demonstration of the prototype’s ability to
measure the EMCS of a submarine model in near marine boundary as well as sea
clutter as defined in Phase I and Phase II Statement of Work (SOW). Ensure that
the RCS measured data compares to the simulation for accuracy and reliability.
Ensure that the range demonstrates the ability to identify the structure
responsible for the EMCS signal. Deliver a small, compact, desk top,
field-operational prototype optical emulator to the Navy. Demonstrate
femtosecond pulsed laser to perform holographic time-of-flight measurements at
company location, which allows retrieving the 3D information of the model. This
type of holographic measurement is similar to the ranging mode of operation of
RADAR. In addition, demonstrate the capability of immediately identifying the
location and the nature of the strongest scatters and glints from the proposed
Navy structure of interest. This ability allows for an intuitive interaction
with the structure model to eliminate these sources of unwanted scattering and
minimize the RCS from visible to Radio Frequency range. Deliver a bench-top,
prototyped RCS measurement instrument and related software and Actual training
or training materials/manuals to the Navy for the transition this technology.
PHASE III DUAL USE
APPLICATIONS: Assist the Navy in transitioning the technology. RCS range
prototype delivered to the Navy will be used for Submarine, Littoral Combat
Ship (LCS), DDG, or any other NAVAL Platform.
This technology can be used to scale down and test many different commercial
structures such as buildings, cruise ships, and other structures.
1. Knott, E. F. “Radar Cross
Section Measurements.” Springer Science & Business Media, 2012,
2. Coulombe, M., Horgan, T.,
Waldman, J., Szatkowski, G. and Nixon, W. “A 524 GHz Polarimetric Compact Range
for Scale Model RCS Measurements.” Tech. Rep., DTIC Document, 1999,
3. Goyette, T. M., Dickinson,
J. C., Waldman, J. and Nixon, W. E. “A 1.56-thz compact radar range for W-band
imagery of scale-model tactical targets.”
4. Rosenberg, L. and Watts,
S. “High Grazing Angle Sea-Clutter Literature Review.” Electronic Warfare and
Radar Division, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Edinburgh South
5. A. Marandi et al.,
“Network of time-multiplexed optical parametric oscillators as a coherent Ising
machine.” Photonics Nature, Vol 8, 937 (2014)
6. S. Utsunomiya et al.,
“Mapping of Ising models onto injection-locked laser system.” Optics Express,
Vol 19, 18091 (2011)
Cross-section; Meteorological Instrumentation; Laser Beam Propagation; Maritime
Environment; Turbulent Boundary Layer; Nano Photonics
** TOPIC NOTICE **
These Navy Topics are part of the overall DoD 2019.A STTR BAA. The DoD issued its 2019.1 BAA STTR pre-release on November 28, 2018, which opens to receive proposals on January 8, 2019, and closes February 6, 2019 at 8:00 PM ET.
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